Physical health can be defined as the normal functioning of the body. Representing one dimension of total well-being, it's about how your body grows, feels and moves, how you care for it, and what you put into it.
Pillars of Physical Health
Maintaining good physical health decreases your risk of developing conditions such as heart disease, stroke and some cancers. Being physically healthy also helps you to manage life's challenges by protecting you against fatigue, injury and illness.
Physical health is closely linked to mental health and an integral part of leading a healthy lifestyle and enjoying life. This is often taken for granted and it isn’t until we are sick, ill or injured that we put the time and energy in to looking after our physical health. It is important to regularly monitor your overall physical health and getting a check-up if you (or someone you know) are concerned.
The four pillars of health are Sleep (and recovery), Nutrition, Physical Activity and Connection. The NZDF Health Hub provides everything you need to know about strengthening each of these pillars. Also check out the Staying on top of your game booklet.
Sleep (and recovery)
Sleep is one of the most under-rated tools to enhance health and performance. Getting adequate sleep helps to prevent excess weight gain, heart disease and increased illness and disease.
Rest and recovery after stressful activity, both mentally and physically, is also important as it enables the body to repair itself and be fit and ready for another day.
Adequate and appropriate nutrition helps support performance, recovery, mental clarity, and overall mood.
Like a vehicle, the body performs best with the right fuel. If you put regular gasoline in a Formula 1 car, it will struggle to compete with the rest of the field and will likely end up making an early pitstop.
Good nutrition provides the body with the nutrients and fuel it needs to perform and recover. It also reduces stress and inflammation in the body, which is associated with injury, illness and mental health issues.
For detailed advice, see the Nutrition and supplements section. And check out this video explaining the surprisinglydramatic role of nutrition in mental health.
The surprisingly dramatic role of nutrition in mental health
Translator: Mayumi Oiwa-Bungard Reviewer: Queenie Lee
a physician by the name of Semmelweis
advised that all physicians wash their hands
before touching a pregnant woman,
in order to prevent childbed fever.
His research showed that you could reduce the mortality rates from septicemia,
from 18% down to 2%,
simply through washing your hands with chlorinated lime.
His medical colleagues refused to accept
that they themselves were responsible for spreading infection.
Semmelweis was ridiculed by his peers, dismissed,
and the criticism and backlash broke him down,
and he died in an asylum, two weeks later, from septicemia,
at the age of 47.
What I'm going to talk about today may sound as radical
as hand-washing sounded to a mid-19th century doctor,
and yet it is equally scientific.
It is the simple idea
that optimizing nutrition is a safe and viable way
to avoid, treat, or lessen mental illness.
Poor nutrition is a significant and modifiable risk factor
for the development of mental illness.
According to the 2013 New Zealand Health Survey,
the rates of psychiatric illnesses in children
doubled over the last five years.
Internationally, there's been a 3-fold increase in ADHD,
a 20-fold increase in autism,
and a 40-fold increase in bipolar disorder in children.
And this graph here shows there's been a 4-fold increase
in the number of people who are on disability
as a direct consequence of an underlying psychiatric illness.
The rates of mental illness are on the rise.
So how are we dealing with this problem?
Currently, our healthcare system operates within a medical model.
Now, this means that you would typically be offered psychiatric medications first,
followed by psychological therapies,
and other forms of support.
Our reliance on medications as a front-line form of treatment
is evident from the increasing rates of prescriptions.
For example in 2012,
half a million New Zealanders - that's one-eighth of us -
had been prescribed an antidepressant;
that's 38% higher than five years previously.
Similarly, the rates of prescriptions for antipsychotics doubled,
from 2006 to 2011.
Given that this medical model
is fairly universal across all Western societies,
you would rightfully expect that it was working well.
And indeed, in some cases, these treatments save lives.
And I'm not here to dismiss it altogether.
However, if a treatment is truly effective,
then shouldn't the rates of disorder
and disability as a direct consequence of that illness
be decreasing rather than increasing?
That's why we need to consider the role that medications might be playing
in some of these outcomes.
If we take any class of medication: antipsychotics, anti-anxiety medications,
the pattern is the same.
In the short-term,
these treatments are often very effective, but in the long-term, they aren't.
And in some cases, they're making life worse.
If we look at, for example, studies
that are being done on ADHD children treated with stimulants or Ritalin,
in the short-term,
they are better, and responding -
better responders than any other form of treatment,
but in the long-term,
they fare less well
than children who were never prescribed these medications.
Another study showed
that despite our ever-increasing reliance on antidepressants,
the recovery rates and relapse rates
are no better now than they were 50 years ago,
prior to the advent of these medications.
And children with depression
who were treated with antidepressants
are three times more likely to convert to bipolar disorder
than children who were never given these medications.
And people who were randomized
to stay on their dose of antipsychotic medications
are less likely to recover from schizophrenia in the long-term
than people who had been randomized
to a dose reduction or complete elimination of the drug.
And I can show you more and more studies
all highlighting the same bleak picture.
Is there another way forward?
Almost two decades ago,
my PhD supervisor at the time, Professor Bonnie Kaplan,
told me about some families
who were treating themselves with nutrients,
in Southern Alberta, Canada.
Now, they had bipolar disorder, psychosis, depression.
These are serious conditions, and my education in clinical psychology
had taught me that nutrition and diet were of trivial significance for mental health,
and that only drugs or psychotherapy could treat these serious conditions.
But she and others were publishing preliminary data
in the earlier part of this century,
showing people getting well and staying well.
And so, I decided to study the nutrients,
and that's what I've done for the last decade.
In 2009, I received some funding to run a randomized placebo-controlled trial,
using minerals and vitamins, also known collectively as micronutrients,
for the treatment of ADHD in adults.
And this study was published in the British Journal of Psychiatry
in April of this year,
and here's what we found.
Within just an 8-week period,
twice as many people responded in the micronutrient group
compared to placebo;
twice as many people went into remission in their depression,
in the micronutrient group.
Hyperactivity and impulsivity reduced into the normal, non-clinical range,
and those who were taking the micronutrients
were more likely to report
that their ADHD symptoms were less impairing and less interfering
in their work and social relationships
than people who were on the placebo.
And one year later,
those people who stayed on the micronutrients
maintained their changes or showed further improvement,
and those who switched to medications or stopped the micronutrients
actually showed worsening of their symptoms.
Now, I need to tell you something here,
and that is, when I say micronutrients,
I'm actually referring to a dose higher than what you'd get
out of a vitamin pill purchased on the supermarket.
In this study, we gave participants
up to 15 pills a day with 36 nutrients.
So it would be unlikely
that if you went and got an over-the-counter supplement,
you would unlikely see these positive benefits,
both because the dose is lower, and the breadth of nutrients is lower.
Now, these positive benefits are not confined to a single study.
My lab at the University of Canterbury
is the Mental Health and Nutrition Research Group,
and we've published over 20 papers in medical journals,
all documenting the benefits of micronutrients.
For example, this study here
showed that we could reduce the symptoms of bipolar disorder in children by 50%
with a simultaneous reduction of medications.
This study here
showed that we could reduce rates of probable posttraumatic stress disorder
from 65% down to 18%,
following the Christchurch earthquakes,
with a one-month intervention of micronutrients,
with no change in those not taking the nutrients.
Even one year later, those people who had received the nutrients
were doing better than those who didn't.
And we've just replicated these findings
in collaboration with researchers at the University of Calgary,
following the floods of June 2013, in Alberta, Canada.
To me, the message is clear,
that a well-nourished body and brain
is better able to withstand ongoing stress and recover from illness.
Giving micronutrients in appropriate doses
can be an effective and inexpensive public health intervention
to improve the mental health of a population
following an environmental catastrophe.
In my 20-year career, I have rarely seen
these dramatic responses from conventional treatments.
When people get well,
they get well across the board,
not only in the symptoms that we treated,
but also in other areas, like improved sleep,
stabilization of mood, reduction in anxiety,
and the reduction in need for cigarettes, cannabis, and alcohol.
My research and those around the world
have shown that 60 - 80% of people respond to micronutrients,
showing just how powerful this intervention is.
there have now been 20 randomized placebo-controlled trials -
this is the gold standard that we use to make clinical decisions -
showing that we can reduce aggression in prisoners,
slow cognitive decline in the elderly,
treat depression, anxiety, stress, autism, and ADHD.
And, they might even be more cost-effective
than current conventional treatments.
This study here documented the treatment of a 10-year-old boy with psychosis.
When his 6-month inpatient treatment with medications was unsuccessful,
he was treated with micronutrients.
Not only did the micronutrients
completely eliminate his hallucinations and delusions -
changes that were maintained six years later -
but the cost of the treatment was less than 2%
than the cost of the unsuccessful inpatient treatment.
The cost savings alone make it imperative
that our society pay attention to the wider benefits of this approach.
And there is more good news.
Supplementing before mental illness emerges
can actually stop these problems from developing in the first place.
This fantastic study looked at 81 adolescents at risk for psychosis
and randomized them
to receive either Omega-3 fatty acids in the form of fish oils -
essential nutrients for brain health -
or placebo for a 12-week period.
One year later,
5% of those who received the fish oil had converted to psychosis
versus 28% of those on placebo.
That represents an 80% reduction
of the chances of you converting to psychosis,
simply through giving fish oils.
I wonder if I know what some of you are thinking.
I wonder if some of you are thinking,
"Hold on! Why don't I just eat better?"
"Why don't I just tell everyone to eat better?"
And indeed, there are some fantastic studies
that document the strong relationship between dietary patterns and mental health
although we're still in very early days of scientific investigation.
We don't know who would benefit from dietary manipulation alone,
and who may need the additional boost from extra nutrients.
But even in the last five years,
there have been 11 epidemiological studies,
cross-sectionally and longitudinally,
in large populations around the world,
all showing the same thing.
The more you eat a prudent or Mediterranean
or unprocessed type of diet,
the lower your risk for depression.
And the more you eat the Western diet or processed food,
the higher your risk for depression.
I know of only one study that has not found this association,
and not a single study shows
that the Western diet is good for our mental health.
What is the Western diet?
Well, it's one that is heavily processed,
high in refined grains, sugary drinks, takeaways,
and low in fresh produce.
And the healthy diet is one that is fresh,
high in fruits and vegetables,
high in fish, nuts, healthy fats,
and low in processed foods.
What your grandmother would recognize as food.
There are still many questions remaining
about the relationship between mental health and nutrition.
What role do genetics play
in determining who's going to respond to nutrients,
and who needs additional nutrients than what they can get out of their diet?
What role does an infected, inflamed gut play in the absorption of nutrients?
It's not we are what we eat;
it's we are what we absorb.
And what role do medications play
in determining how effective the nutrients are?
Combining medications and nutrients is actually complicated,
and we need more research in better understanding these interactions.
But ultimately, we need to know how long these good benefits last.
So with all of this data,
this rich data highlighting the power of nutrition,
I think we can make some individual and collective changes now.
We could reconsider our current treatment approach:
prioritize lifestyle factors,
healthy eating, exercise, supplements,
and when necessary, psychological treatments,
and save medications for when these approaches don't work.
If nutrients work,
then shouldn't they be covered through our healthcare system?
Take universal prevention seriously
by optimizing the nutrition of those who are vulnerable.
We don't wait for the heart attack to hit
in order for us to modify lifestyle behaviors
that we know contribute to heart disease.
It should be no different with mental health.
An easy way to implement universal prevention
would be to have pregnant women - not pregnant women:
midwives tell pregnant women about the importance of nutrition.
Nutrient-depleted mothers produce nutrient-depleted children.
Nutrient-poor foods during pregnancy
increase the chances that your child will have a mental health problem.
Learn about the risks of cheap, processed foods.
As Michael Pollan stated, cheap food is an illusion;
there is no such thing as cheap food.
The price is paid somewhere,
and if it's not paid at the cash register, then it's charged to the environment
and to the public purse in the form of subsidies,
and it's charged to your health.
All children need to learn how to cook.
All children need to know that food doesn't have to come in a packet.
Schools could reflect on the content of their lunch menus.
Children are too frequently rewarded with processed foods for good behavior.
We need to reflect on whether or not this pairing intuitively makes sense.
Ultimately, we have a responsibility to teach them
that every time they put something in their mouths,
they make a choice:
to eat something nourishing, or something nutritionally depleted.
In the 19th century, physicians were offended
when Semmelweis suggested they wash their hands before delivering babies.
We are now asking them to consider
whether the medications that they prescribed
are contributing to the poor long-term outcome
for some people with mental illness.
But eating well and when appropriate additional nutrients
can improve the mental health of many people.
I leave you with one last thought.
Randomized trials in the 1600s
showed that putting limes aboard ships headed out for long voyages
completely eliminated the 40% mortality from scurvy.
But it took 264 years for the British government
to mandate that all ships must carry citrus for their sailors.
How long will it take our society to pay attention to the research showing
that suboptimal nutrition is contributing to the epidemic of mental illness?
So this is my idea worth spreading:
and if we're really ready to get serious about mental health,
we need to get serious about the critical role played by nutrition.
The body is designed to move. Lack of exercise decreases range of motion within the body's joints causing pain and dysfunction. It also contributes to a decline in physical, mental and physiological health. Sedentary behaviours can lead to a variety of health consequences including weight gain, type two diabetes, cardiovascular disease and mood disorders.
On the flip side, too much exercise and stress can have an adverse effect, making the body susceptible to burnout and a compromised immune system. The body functions best with moderate amounts of work, stress and activity, coupled with rest to allow the body to repair and build stronger.