"Toi tu te kupu, toi tu te mana, toi tu te whenua"
This proverb was spoken byTinirauofWanganui. It is a plead to hold fast to our culture, for without language, without mana (spirit), and without land, the essence of being Māori would no longer exist, but be a skeleton which would not give justice to the full body of Māoritanga (Māoridom).
An understanding of the Māori world (te ao Māori) embraces an interconnectedness and interrelationship of both living and non-living things. 'Te Hoe Nuku Roa' (Durie, 1995) provides one framework for understanding elements underpinning Māori identity.
Tangata whenua: The people’s relationship with the land (which provides a sense of belonging).
Wairua: Spirituality (which provides a sense of meaning, connection and purpose).
Whakapapa: Ancestral ties (which provide ancestral-based wisdom and appropriate guidelines for living).
Tikanga Māori: Customs (which carry values and cultural practices unique to Māori people).
The 'Koru of Māori Ethics' was developed by Manuka Henare in 1998. The core Māori values of Mana (respect), Mauri (life force), Tapu (sacredness), Io (God), and Hau (essence of vitality) are depicted in the centre of the koru as the founding values that inform the ethical concepts and practices of Kotahitanga, Wairuatanga, Whanaungatanga and Kaitiakitanga.
Tikanga Māori values
What it looks like
A sense of belonging
Getting to know one another
Ability to extend aroha
Rangatahi helping each other, Tautoko, coaching, awhi-support, active listening, walking the walk, follow up
Everyone doing the same thing at the same time
Being in control
Sharing of information
Building on knowledge
Learning something and how to apply it
Tuakana / Teina
Experienced helping those less experienced
Guard our taonga e.g. traditional Māori takaro, tikanga, natural resources
Benevolent guardianship – not so much keeping others away, as sharing with reciprocity (giving back)
Genealogy of the rangatahi, the history of the tipuna and the waahi
Making whānau links in groups. Mihi / Pepeha, learn and share, whakapapa of taonga takaro, place names, waka, connections
A sense of wellbeing. A connection to whenua, ngahere, moana, maunga, awa
The placing into practice that which is correct
Understanding rules and boundaries and what is right thing
Sharing of kai, Whakawhanaungatanga
Paying respect to nga Atua
Karakia, knowing & respecting the realms of each atua and their roles in our everyday lives. Learning around Nga Atua Māori and the roles they play in te Ao Māori
Indigenous knowledge has value
The power of Kawa, Tikanga, and Kaupapa to provide answers to today's problems - By Curtis Bristowe, TEDxRuakura.
ignore mondo in Mario en la cara
Netanyahu who own our home where fart
Enoch although there no clue though a
yachtie who who might our Tokugawa
indigenous knowledge has value
indigenous knowledge has with most
importantly indigenous knowledge can
provide answers and offer solutions to
contemporary problems by the end of my
talk you will have a glimpse into the
understanding of why and so my story
begins at the Chatham Islands the
Chatham Islands are a group of islands
that lie roughly six hundred and eighty
kilometers southeast of mainland New
Zealand they are known by the mauryas
for air cody and by the indigenous
peoples of these islands the moriori as
a vehicle who and scale the Chatham's
are roughly half the size of stewart
island and a home to around six hundred
people of European Maori and moriori
descent the landscape of the Chatham's
itself is quite spectacular a mixture of
volcanic Peaks flat swamplands lagoons
and sandy beaches but to the uninitiated
the Chatham's is also coldly unforgiving
vastly deforested for sheep and cattle
farming there are few places of shelter
the weather changes quickly and Bower
trees pay testament to the strong
southerly z-- that lashed the land and
turn the sea upon visiting the Chatham's
our Chatham Islands it is easy to
understand how a solitary and isolated
location provided the perfect
destination for the New Zealand
government to exile and imprison its
enemies for what is not widely known or
widely recorded in the history of our
country is that in the 1860s the New
Zealand government utilized the Chatham
Islands as a penal facility to which
they exiled and imprisoned without
charge or trial more than 300 mouldy men
women and children who they had
classified as rebel
or in rebellion against the crown now
these people were not just stripped of
all lands and positions but they were
exiled from their country of birth and
was here on the Chatham Islands without
hope of escape that they were imprisoned
indefinitely now why I share their story
with you now as that their story is my
story my great-grandmother was just a
young girl when she was taken from her
home to imprisonment on the Chatham
Islands along with their parents and her
younger siblings and it was there that
you would eventually lose her mother and
her younger sister our oral tradition
still speaks of the arrival of the
prison bars the Chatham Island shores on
a cold and wet winters morning and how
the prisoners arrived to no food and no
shelter as the government of the time
had deemed that these very essentials
the prisoners must provide for
themselves and so in the wit and the
rain and the cold they built makeshift
shelters of fern fronds and scavenge for
food to feed themselves and their
children now in hindsight it is not a
leap of the imagination to understand
that through reasoning of the
imprisonment that they had been
imprisoned to die at this place but like
so many stories of our people dying was
something my ancestors refused to do
they survived despite everything they
survived and when I first visited the
Chatham Islands in 2011 and stood at the
place that my ancestors had lived and
died they will wash with emotion this
was the question which plagued me in
particular how did they survive how did
they survive a hostile environment to
which they were unaccustomed and
ill-prepared how did they survive the
brutality of a 17th century British
penal system how did they survive the
beatings the floggings the rapes the
forced hard labor malnutrition and
illness that claimed so many of their
lives what beliefs and values did they
draw upon to survive and the darkness of
their imprisonment now it was in
of this question and others that I came
to certain specific cultural
understandings understandings of the
principles I believe my ancestors
utilized to survive their imprisonment
and principles which still have
contemporary application and can
contribute towards positive change in
our lives and in the lives of others but
firstly to understand these principles
we must understand their source now my
ancestors look to the natural world than
our environment as the greatest teacher
they did this in the central
understanding that their environment
that surrounded us had evolved over
billions of years and was operating in a
state of perfection all we needed to do
was to watch and observe and incorporate
those teachings that was them their
truth into our lives in doing so my
ancestors created unique knowledge
systems knowledge systems based upon the
natural flows and rhythms of our
environment knowledge systems which
place collective and spiritual
well-being ahead of individual and
material need one such example was found
in the flight of the cuckoo now the
Kuato is renowned as having the longest
flight path of any bird on the planet
flying from Alaska to alter or New
Zealand every year covering more than
17,000 kilometres and flying nonstop for
eight days without food without water
without rest without sleep now the
flight of the cuota has brought
international scientific inquiry to our
shores focus specifically are born how
such a small and inconspicuous bird
accomplishes such a monumental task now
when my ancestors look to the caca they
observed that it flied in a v-shape
formation which they named takahe they
also observed that a singular bird leads
this flop which they named the man who
took ether karwa or the leader of the
flock but most importantly my ancestors
recognized that this leader does not
lead for the duration of
flight well rather wind fatigue sits in
this boy bird falls back and another
bird rises to that place of leadership
their position of leadership
therefore my I are my ancestors
understood that the co-worker does not
reverse immense distances based upon the
strength the will the drive of the one
but the collective strength the
collective will the collective vision of
the whole through examples such as the
flight of the Karaka my ancestors
defined three distinct principles
principles that enabled our people to
collective ice to unify for common goal
in common purpose the first of these
principles and most important is common
core may be defined in this instance as
the guiding philosophy the collective
aim the communal goal that dream that
vision you aspire to achieve for those
prisoners on the Chatham Islands this
was merely survival to survive the
brutality of their imprisonment this was
the vision their collectivized them this
was the goal that unified them this was
their light in their darkness and a
contemporary context Khoa may be the
well-being and prosperity of your father
your family it may be social or
political change but whatever it may be
Kawa is where the deep thinking must
take place for this philosophy will lead
and guide every aspect of practice and
endeavour that follows and without a
clear and defined vision you were lost
from the beginning the fit second
principle is tequila tequila may be
defined in this instance as the practice
which supports the guiding philosophy at
the core of Qigong our collective
beliefs and values collective beliefs
and values of which my ancestors had
collective beliefs and values are
vitally important because they inform
attitude and behavior and ensured that
whatever endeavor was undertaken it was
undertaken in an ethical and moral way
collective beliefs and values were
vitally important for those prisoners on
the Chatham Islands for though they were
from different tribes they shared this
common knowledge base so when they
engage with their skills and the
abilities they engaged the same way in a
contemporary context we all understand
how easier it is to accomplish a goal
when the people you work beside believe
the same things value the same things
aspire towards the same things the third
principle is Co papa Co Papa may be
defined in this context as the
utilization of these beliefs and values
for specific endeavor for those
prisoners on the Chatham Islands this
was merely the everyday struggle for
survival food shelter clothing medicine
perhaps in a contemporary context that
is not too dissimilar but what must be
understood is that every endeavor
undertaken must contribute towards the
guiding philosophy and though I have
discussed these principles in isolation
it must be understood that they operate
in unison and seamless unison and the
intangible bond which connects them all
as way to a thong spirituality or the
power of the spirit my ancestor
spirituality was based upon the
centrality and sacredness of life itself
that all life had value that all life
had Worth and most importantly that we
were connected to all life through a
multitude of universal kinship ties and
a contemporary context the spirituality
of connection may be understood as a
deeper feeling or understanding one has
when one is focused and mind and body on
a specific endeavor an endeavor which
takes us out of ourselves and connects
us to others ideals causes movements
you momentum this feeling this
understanding as a spiritual connection
and so these are the principles I
believe my ancestors utilized to survive
their imprisonment principles which
teach the importance of being unified in
mind body and spirit to accomplish any
great deed and this is but one example
one example of thousands of examples
held within our indigenous knowledge
answers which are knowledge which offers
answers solutions and alternatives to
contemporary problems and I believe that
now now more than ever our world is in
need of solutions and alternatives and I
believe that this is an awakening a
realization that is happening globally
as globally people are realizing that
the systems put in place by the dominant
powers are broken systems they are
corrupted systems there are systems that
have caused global economic poverty and
inequality global environmental
degradation in exploitation globally
people are realizing that the answers to
these problems cannot be found in the
same knowledge that created them and
this is where indigenous knowledge has
value this is where it has worth because
it is founded upon different principles
principles which favor connection rather
than isolation which favor protection
rather than exploitation principles
which offer change principles which
offer hope now of course there will be
those that question the value of the
knowledge that I have shared their
question the worth of its contemporary
application and in response to these
doubts what I failed to mention at the
beginning of my talk was that my
ancestors goal was just not to survive
their imprisonment it was to escape
their imprisonment and in July 1868
after nearly three years of imprisonment
led by the MALDI warrior prophet Ducati
Araki Donita to Turkey the prisoners
arose in unison subduing the prison
guard and commandeering
supply shove the rifleman and despite
the brutality to which they had been
subject there was no violence
there was no arson there was no looting
there was no retribution of any kind and
three days later on the 17th of July
1868 the riflemen anchored in the
sheltered Cove of 40 or more of the east
coast of the North Island carrying in
its hold and on a stick
297 elderly men women and children their
entire prison population of the Chatham
Islands our oral tradition speaks of how
the prisoners live from the long boats
to the shore
weeping increasing the land as if a
long-lost loved one they never hoped or
dreamed that they would see again but
they had returned United in mind body
and spirit they had survived their
imprisonment they had found their
freedom and most importantly they had
accomplished it together no one was left
behind now at the beginning of my talk I
said that this was my story but this is
not just my story this is our story for
this is but one of the many threads that
make up the fabric of the collective
history of our country and my ancestors
struggle and sacrifice for justice and
for freedom it deserves to be
acknowledged it deserves to be
remembered and we are no less or are
people of a people or a country for
having done so for an acknowledgement of
our past its symbols and intend for the
prison and encapsulate our collective
hopes dreams and desires for the future
so in the closing of our story I would
like to share with you the words of my
ancestors whose teachings and wisdom I
have drawn upon throughout my ancestors
who stand here in spirit with me now
these are their words the words of the
past to the generations
the prison HECO putahi top Italia
heretonight filling are you filling our
Anita 40i a day Fatiha
we are born of the same womb tied in the
bonds of humanity tied to the heavens
above us tied to the earth beneath us
these are bonds that can never be
severed from this life into the next we
have but one family moreda right a Papa
wanna not Iommi here paranoia to a
Makita kawaru ha Tenakee avoid wear a
tow hitch watch her on a Mahima taqwa
cooing a Mahima Takako Kyoko Tod Moreira
occur on a Serie Tina puta tena puta who
you know who Donato Tata for a euro he
we my Tata Tata
Mana: The power in knowing who you are
Providing an historical, contextual discussion of Māori identity in the context of treaty settlements, collective identity, connection to the land and iwi - By Tame Iti, TEDxAuckland.
Transcriber: Ah Shin Park Reviewer: Amanda Zhu
This is my mountain,
This is my river, awa Ōhinemataroa.
This is my marae,
Te Rewa Rewa.
This is Ruatoki, where I was raised.
This is Ruatoki,
set in the valley at the mouth of Te Urewera,
our native forest
in the middle of North Island of New Zealand,
twice the size of Auckland,
25 times bigger than New York.
It is the ancestral home of my people,
It is also known as Ngā Tamariki o te Kohu,
or 'the Children of the Mist'.
As a boy, I was raised by my grandparents
and spoke only Māori, like almost everyone in Ruatoki.
In our language,
we have this word that is very important.
You might have heard it before.
This word is 'mana'.
Everyone in this room,
everyone in this room has some form of mana.
your mana comes from knowing who you are,
where you come from
and your connection to your land,
Mana grounds you.
Mana makes you solid.
Mana bridges you to your past, present and future.
We don't always have to agree.
Mana can be tested, even challenged,
but with respect and an understanding of one another's mana.
We are all equal.
We are all the same, on the same level.
Kanohi ki te kanohi tāngata ki te tāngata.
Eye to eye.
So school was a confusing time for me.
The rules and the regulations
didn't make sense at all, you know.
When I was eight,
the whole school was called to assembly.
And the headmaster got up and said,
'I will not allow you to speak Māori on my school grounds.
So if you continue to speak Māori,
you will remain after school and be punished.'
So I turn to my mates:
(Māori) 'I'll boil your head!'
'The hell is he on about?'
So we thought that was dumb, stupid.
So we wanted to test his mana,
so we disobeyed him
and spoke Māori to see what would happen.
We were given the choice of picking up horse manure
write 'I will not speak Māori'
a hundred times on the blackboard.
I must have written it a thousand times,
a thousand times,
and started to smell like a horse.
I did learn English.
But you know when you learn a new language
and pick up the swear words first?
(Chuckles) That was us.
At home, I learnt about my tīpuna -
ancestor, mountain, the river -
why these things are important to the mana of Tūhoe.
But at school,
I learnt 'Hey, Diddle, Diddle! The cat and the fiddle.
The cow jumped over the moon.'
So Te Reo Māori comes from the sound of the birds.
I speak the same language as the tui,
as the kiwi bird.
Could the headmaster stop the bird from speaking the language too?
Don't be afraid to challenge someone trying to assert authority over you.
Just because someone has authority
does not mean that they have more mana.
If someone is asserting their authority,
they have to let go of respect and understanding to get their way,
and you are no longer equal.
Sixteen, going to Christchurch,
it was another kind of learning, education
to discover what's going on around the world:
people questioning authority about all kinds of things -
the Vietnam War,
socialism and the rights of the working class.
I started to hear the story from other culture
that sound like old Tūhoe stories,
stories about stolen land, community displaced,
story about police brutality,
story about military rule.
I started to meet new people -
Māori, Pacific people, Pākehā -
standing against these things,
and they inspired me.
These were not just Māori issues;
they were global issues with global movements.
And in this time, I learnt the art of protest and political activism:
occupy their space so they can't avoid you,
draw attention to the issue, and then make them uncomfortable,
make them face you, and make your voice be heard.
If mana can be tested,
then you may have to prepare to defend it.
No one can tell you that you are not important
and that your experience does not matter.
And if they do,
I challenge them to say it to your face,
where they can see your eyes and feel your breath.
Kanohi ki te kanohi tāngata ki te tāngata.
Eye to eye.
You have to keep the pressure on,
keep reminding people of the things that they would rather forget.
We had to constantly remind the Crown
that we were here and we're not going away,
that we needed to have a proper, you know, kōrero,
about the stuff that had gone down with our tīpuna, our ancestors.
I remember when the Crown went around the country,
they talk about the fiscal envelope.
This was the government offering amendment on the settlement on historical grievances
before they had even heard any claims.
I decided to make a counter offer for the return of our land -
my nephew's horse blanket.
But, when I arrived, this is what I saw:
The Crown sitting on the stage looking down at us.
We were not eye to eye;
we were not on the same level.
So, what this short-arse Tūhoe do when we're being talked down to?
He borrow a ladder.
Hey bro, can I borrow your ladder?
This is the Honourable Doug Graham listening to my submission.
This is Doug Graham taking my blanket.
Four years later,
here is the horse blanket,
hanging in the office of the Treaty Settlement in Wellington.
They had taken my blanket, frame it
and hung it on the wall as a piece of artwork.
They had my blanket, but they still had the land.
So four years later,
what does a Tūhoe do when someone steals his horse blanket?
He sent an invoice.
An expensive one too.
So it wasn't really because I wanted the money,
not at all.
I wanted to remind the Crown that until this was resolved,
they still had a debt to Tūhoe
and we are not going away,
just like this,
This is the Māori language petition, Hana Jackson, 1972.
The Māori Land March, Dame Whina Cooper, 1975.
Bastion Point, Takaparawhā, Ngāti Whātua,
The Springbok Tour, 1981.
The anti-nuclear campaign, 1985.
These are some of the political social movements
that have shaped the identity of this country,
not just because they had political opposition at that time,
but because other than eye to eye,
contrary to the realisation,
that the mana of the people
is equal to that of any authority.
So after 170 years of struggle -
So after 170 years of struggle,
of fighting for the mana of Tūhoe,
we finally got respect and understanding from the Crown.
We got this.
(Video) Mr. Finlayson: The Crown unreservedly apologises
for not having honoured its obligations to Tūhoe
under Te Tiriti o Waitangi
and profoundly regrets its failure
to appropriately acknowledge and respect te mana Motuhake o Tūhoe
for many generations.
Tame Iti: History has woven us together.
We are the basket, te kete, that holds the future.
We must acknowledge each other in this space,
right here in this space,
Kanohi ki te kanohi tāngata ki te tāngata.
Eye to eye.
(Māori) Rock on the mountain,
the Mataura River harbor,
the courtyard of the Rewa Rewa is white,
people are Tūhoe.
Some Māori have a strong sense of place in te ao Māori while others may feel their identity is less strongly connected to their Māori heritage, or they're disconnected from this world. It’s never too late to begin exploring your heritage further.
If you would like to explore these questions yourself, or to learn more about te ao Māori, contact your nearest Maori Cultural Advisor, Kaumātua or Marae.